The credit of giving concept of Ashraya-Ashrayi bhava goes to Vaghbhatta. Ashraya-Ashrayi bhava can better be defined as Dosha Dhatu Ashraya Ashrayi Bhava. Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata are considered to classic writers of Ayurvedis system of medicine. Vagbhata wrote two significant works in form of Ashtanga Hridaya and Ashtanga Sangraha, both of which acknowledge the authority of Caraka and Susruta Samhitas. Ashtanga Hridaya and Ashtanga Sangraha both closely follow the footsteps of Caraka and Susruta Samhitas. If the subject matter related to Ayurvedic diagnosis is critically analyzed, as added by Vagbhata then it can be concluded that it serves important platform.
Tridosha theory of Ayurvedic system of medicine is the mainstay of clinical practice. The three biological humours are the primary life-forces in the human body. The three biological humours correspond to the elements of biological air, fire and water, respectively.
Vata, the biological air is formed when air and ether interact. Pitta, the biological fire is formed when fire and water interact. Kapha, the biological water is formed when earth and water interact. Vata, pitta and kapha remain in dynamic equilibrium which represents health. Imbalance among The three biological humours is the major cause of the disease. With medicines, either formulated from medicinal herbs or minerals, one enhances the opposing elements to achieve equilibrium among Vata, pitta and kapha.
According to Ayurvedic system of medicine, the seven dhatus are chiefly responsible for the immunity. Ayurvedic system of medicine follows a very rational and specific method for treatment for diseases having relation to the particular dhatus. The growth and existence of the human body is dependent on these seven dhatus. These seven dhatus are composed of five elements or panchmahabhutas. When there is an imbalance or disequilibrium in functioning of the dhatus, the result is the manifestation of the disease. All the seven element tissues of the body contain their own agni (dhatavagni) to metabolize the nutrients supplied to them through channels of circulation.
Let us cite example of life-style diseases in order to understand the concept of Dosha Dhatu Ashraya Ashrayi Bhava. According to Sushruta, the father of modern surgery, that if a person gets overindulged in food-items which produces more kapha or shleshma (biological water), leads a sedentary life, skips physical exercise, overeats and do day-sleeping, the first of the seven dhatus, rasa (plasma) which is sweet in taste, starts circulating very much like ama throughout the body. Medas (fat) and Sneha (oil) are products of the amarasa (sweet tasting). Furher, with ageing process, the tissue-fire (dhatvagni) becomes sluggish (manda) and as a result, ama production results at Dhatvagnipaka level. According to the Ashiraya Ashrayi Bhava, Medas (fat) and Sneha (oil) are places of the biological water, Kapha. Medas (fat) and Sneha (oil) too have a definite linkage with pitta and vata, when it comes to abnormality.
Osteoporosis is generally characterized by loss of bone tissue and low bone mass that leads to fragile and weak bones thereby posing increased risk for fracture. Osteopenia is generally considered to be a precursor thing in osteoporosis. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, signs and symptoms described under the heading "Asthi kshaya" closely resemble with osteoporosis. Laksha guggulu & Mukta shukti pishti are in practice for the disorder of the Asthivaha Srotasa. A clinical study evaluates the efficacy and safety of Mukta shukti pishti and Laksha gugglu in 45 patients of osteoporosis/osteopenia.
Vata-pitta nature (prakruti) was found in 82.22% of patients whereas vata-kapha nature (prakruti) was observed in 17.78 % of patients. Vata, the biological air and asthi (bone) have the Ashraya-Ashrayi bhava. Perons with vata prakriti when consumed the vataja ahara-vihara, it easily vitiated the vata which degenerates the Asthi (bone) due its attributes. Vata in ccompany of the biological fire, pitta increases the fir in asthi (asthyagni) and sppeds up degeneration of bones in excess. The present study demonstrates that the biological air, vata plays a significant role in the manifestation Asthi kshaya independently. Vata along with kapha causes obstruction in channels of circulation (srotoavrodh) and leads to improper synthesis of bone as nutrients does not reach channels of circulation (asthivaha srotas). Due to this, bone remodeling does not occur in proper fashion.