Valine is a branched chain amino acid and closely related to leucine and isoleucine in both structure and function. These three branched amino acids in our body comprised approximately 70 percent of the amino acids. These amino acids are hydrophobic in nature and present in the interior of proteins. Valine was discovered in 1901 by Emil Fischer, a German scientist. It is among the essential amino acids and can't be synthesized by body on its own. Thus it is taken from dietary supplements like from different plant and animals sources. It is found in the muscles tissues in high concentrations. Binding and recognition sites on cells cannot be formed without valine. If these binding sites are not formed then chemical messages from the brain cannot be translated. Valine also helps to maintain the structural and functional integrity in humans.
Animal origin: Valine sources from animal origin includes meat, poultry, fish contain the significant amount of valine. Dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt are also rich in valine.
Plant origin: Plant sources like peanuts, legumes, beans, lentils, soy, mushrooms, Sesame seeds, spinach and kale contain the significant amount of valine.
Deficiency of valine results in the Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) which causes the impairment in the metabolism of valine along with the leucine and isoleucine. The disease is so named because urine of the affected people smells like maple syrup. Other complication associated with the valine deficiency can affect the myelin covering of the nerves.
Increased intake of valine may result in the hallucinations and skin crawling sensation. Too much consumption of valine can cause the excess accumulation of ammonia in body. There is also disruption in the kidney liver functions due to higher intake.