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Ankol (Alangium Salvifolium) - Properties, Benefits & Dosage


Ankol or Alangium Salvifolium is an medicinal plant traditionally used for treatment of hemorrhoids, rheumatic arthritis, loose stools, herpes, blood disorders etc. Each part of ankol tree including roots, leaves, stem and bark has several medicinal values in the Ayurveda. In modern scientific literatures, the plant has been reported to have potential efficacy against diabetes, peptic ulcer, arthritis, inflammation and anthelminthic activities etc. A. salvifolium is reported to contain various biologically active phytochemicals such as alangine, ankorine, tubulosine, alangicine, salsoline etc. The present review highlights the traditional uses of different parts of A. salvifolium, its phytochemical constituents with therapeutic activity and the evidence based studies on various pharmacological effects of the plant.

They are small, thorny deciduous tree which grows up to a height of 5-10 meters.Bark yellowish, leaves alternate, elliptical and usually unequal at the base; flowers-yellowish white, fragrant, in axillary fascicles,fruits 1-2 seeded,1cm in length,1-2 seeded berries crowned by the calyx lobes.

Occurrence and Chemical Constituents

The Alangium salvifolium consist different phytoconstituents in different part of the plant. Leaves, roots and seeds of Alangium salvifolium contain the alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, tannins, oil and saponins. Plant also consist monoterpenoid lactam, alangiside, loganic acid, venoterpine, dl-salsoline and isocephaeline.

Leaves of Alangium salvifolium contain alkaloids, deoxytubulosine, alangimarckine, dehydroprotoemetine etc. Three new phenolic glycosides, salviifosides A-C, and three known compounds salicin, kaempferol, and kaempferol 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of Alangium salviifolium.

Root bark contains the alkaloids, emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine, tubulosine, isotubulosine alangium A, alangium B, marckidine, marckine, and alangine, and also myricyl alcohol, de-Me-psychotrine, alangicin, stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol. Stem bark contains the alkaloids, alangine, akharkantine, akoline and lamarkine.

Seed alkaloids include emetine, cephaeline, N-methylcephaeline, psychotrine, betuline, betulinaldehyde, lipeol, betulinic acid and ß-sitosterol. Stigmasta- 5, 22, 25- trien-3ß-ol, myristic acid, E-cis- fused neohopane derivetives, alangidiol and its isomer; N- benzoyl-L-Ph-alaninol, and 3 unidentified triterpenoids also isolated from the plant.

Common Synonyms Of Ankol

  •   Botanical Name : Alangium salviifolium (L.f.)
  •   English Name : Sage-leaved alangium
  •   Sanskrit Name : Ankolah, ankolla, Dirghakila, Dirghakilakah, Gudhamallika, Guptasneha, Pitasarah
  •   Hindi Name : Aankol, akola, Ankol
  •   Kannada Name : Ankolemara, ankota, ankotha
  •   Malayalam Name : Alinnil, angolam, ankolam
  •   Marathi Name : Akel, akola, ankol
  •   Telugu Name : Ankolamu, urgu, uru, Udaga, Uduga, Ooduga, Udugachettu
  •   Urdu Name : Ankula

Classification

  •   Kingdom : Plantae
  •   Class : Dicotyledons
  •   Sub-class : Polypetalae
  •   Series : Calyciflorae
  •   Order : Cornales
  •   Family : Alangiaceae
  •   Genus : Alangium
  •   Species : A. salviifolium

Habitat of Ankol

Forests, at elevations below 1,200 metres in southern China. Lowland rainforest and riverine forest, at elevations up to 750 metres.

Common Properties Of The Herb

Ankol (Alangium Salvifolium) is helpful in following health conditions.

  •   The bark is commonly used medicinally in India. Very bitter, it is emetic and is used as a substitute for ipecacuanha (Carapichea ipecacuanha)
  •   A decoction of the whole plant, combined with the fruit of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), is used externally for the treatment of boils.
  •   The roots are anthelmintic and purgative. The juice is used to expel worms, and to treat conditions such as piles, dropsy, hypertension, diarrhoea, fever, back pain, blood disorders, snake and rat bites, leprosy and other skin diseases.
  •   The leaves are used to cure asthma and as cataplasm to reduce rheumatic pains.
  •   The stem is used to cure diarrhoea and vomiting.
  •   The fruit juice is applied to the eyes to cure eye diseases.
  •   The fruit is used as purgative, expectorant, carminative and as an antidote for poisoning.
  •   The alkaloid alangine has been isolated from the plant; this compound acts on the parasympathetic nervous system. Other alkaloids, including cephaline, emetine and psychotrine, have also been isolated.
  •   Leaf and wood extracts showed antifungal activity.

Parts Used

  •   Leaves
  •   Flowers
  •   Fruits
  •   Seeds
  •   Ankol root bark
  •   Ankol Oil

Effect on Doshas

Roots pacify Kapha and Vata. Fruits pacify Vata and Pitta.

Ayurvedic Properties of Ankol

Hindi Sanskrit English
Rasa Kashaya Taste Astringent, Bitter and Pungent
Veerya Sheet Potency Hot
Vipaka Katu Post-digestive effect Katu
Guna Laghu Characteristics Light to digest, unctuous, oily, strong, piercing

Side effects of Ankol

Side effects of the Ankol Roots

  •   Severe burning sensation
  •   Stomach upset
  •   Discomfort feeling in the abdomen
  •   Headache
  •   Vertigo (reeling sensation)
  •   Insomnia
Side Effects of Ankol Seeds & Fruits

The most common side effect of Ankol seeds and fruit is loss of appetite. However, no other adverse effect is observed.