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Akhrot, Walnut (Juglans Regia)


Juglans Regia also refer as walnut, is the oldest tree of the World, dating back to 7000 B.C. Walnuts are the oldest tree food known to man, dating back to 7000 B.C. The Romans called walnuts Juglans regia, “Jupiter’s royal acorn.” Early history indicates that English walnuts came from ancient Persia, where they were reserved for royalty. Thus, the walnut is often known as the “Persian Walnut.” Walnuts were traded along the Silk Road route between Asia and the Middle East. Caravans carried walnuts to far off lands and eventually through sea trade, spreading the popularity of the walnut around the world. English merchant marines transported the product for trade to ports around the world and they became known as “English Walnuts.” England, in fact, never grew walnuts commercially. The outer shell provided a natural protective layer helping to maintain the quality of the nut. Today the nut trade continues to be a well-established, ordered, and structured business, and the California walnut is well known as the top quality walnut for the world.

It is native in a region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China. The largest forests are in Kyrgyzstan, where trees occur in extensive, nearly pure walnut forests at 1,000–2,000 m altitude (Hemery 1998) notably at Arslanbob in Jalal-Abad Province.

Occurrence

Akhrot is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 25–35 m, and a trunk up to 2 m diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well. The bark is smooth, olive-brown when young and silvery-grey on older branches, with scattered broad fissures with a rougher texture.

Like all walnuts, the pith of the twigs contains air spaces, the chambered pith brownish in colour. The leaves are alternately arranged, 25-40 cm long, odd-pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, paired alternately with one terminal leaflet. The largest leaflets the three at the apex, 10–18 cm long and 6–8 cm broad; the basal pair of leaflets much smaller, 5–8 cm long, the margins of the leaflets entire.

Chemical Composition of Juglans Regia

Walnuts are composed of many chemical compounds such as:

  •   Ascorbic acid
  •   Flavonoids
  •   Quercetin
  •   Caffeic acid.

Common Synonyms Of Juglans Regia

  •   English name – Walnut, Persian Walnut, Butter nut, White Walnut etc.
  •   Hindi name – Akhrot
  •   Sanskrit name – Aksot, Karparala, Sailabhava
  •   Kannada name – Akarodapappu, Akrotu
  •   Punjabi name – Akharota

Classification of Juglans Regia

  •   Kingdom Plantae : Plants
  •   Subkingdom Tracheobionta : Vascular plants
  •   Superdivision Spermatophyta : Seed plants
  •   Division Magnoliophyta : Flowering plants
  •   Class Magnoliopsida : Dicotyledons
  •   Subclass : Hamamelididae
  •   Order : Juglandales
  •   Family Juglandaceae : Walnut family
  •   Genus Juglans L. : walnut P
  •   Species Juglans regia L. : English walnut P

Habitat

Cultivated in Himalayas and the Khasia hills.

Uses & Effectiveness

  •   Rich in Antioxidants
  •   Super Plant Source of Omega-3s
  •   Decrease Inflammation
  •   Promotes a Healthy Gut
  •   Reduce Risk of Some Cancers
  •   Supports Healthy Aging
  •   Supports Weight Control
  •   Supports Good Brain Function
  •   Manage Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Your Risk
  •   Lower Blood Pressure
  •   Improves Blood Fats
  •   Supports Male Reproductive Health

Nutritional Properties

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrient Database, 1 cup of unbranded, organic walnuts (30 grams) contains:

  •   Energy: 200 calories
  •   Carbohydrate 3.89 grams (g)
  •   Fiber: 2 g
  •   Sugar: 1 g
  •   Fat: 20 g
  •   Protein: 5 g
  •   Iron: 0.72 mg
  •   Calcium: 20 milligrams (mg)
  •   Sodium: 0 mg

Walnuts are also a good source of:

  •   Manganese
  •   Copper
  •   Magnesium
  •   Phosphorus
  •   Vitamin B6
  •   Iron

Contraindications

Contraindications have not been identified. Cross-hypersensitivity between tree nuts is known to exist.

Properties of Juglans Regia

Hindi Sanskrit English
Rasa Kashaya Taste Madhura(Sweet)
Veerya Sheet Potency Ushna(Hot)
Vipaka Katu Post-digestive effect Madhura(undergoes sweet taste after digestion)
Guna Laghu Characteristics Guru(Heavy),Snigdha(Slimy)

Side Effects of Juglans Regia

With an increase in the dose used, this plant, like some poisonous plants, may cause damages likes:

  •   Can Cause Digestive Issues
  •   May Lead To Weight Gain
  •   May Cause Allergies
  •   May Aggravate Ulcers
  •   May Cause Choking In Children