Down syndrome is a genetic disorder with abnormality in number of chromosomes where extra genetic material from chromosome 21 is transferred to a newly formed embryo, having 47 chromosomes in their cells instead of 46 (Normal number of Chromosomes), characterized by intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. All affected individuals experience cognitive delays but the intellectual disability is usually mild to moderate. All person with Down syndrome are unique individual and may be characterized to different degrees, or not at all.
There are three types of Down syndrome. People often can’t tell the difference between each type without looking at the chromosomes because the physical features and behaviors are similar.
During reproduction, Children got their genes passed from their parents. These genes are contain chromosomes which grouped along in the cell nucleus. There are 46 chromosomes total in each cell - Half of the chromosomes are from the father, and half are from the mother. When some or all of a person's cells have an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21, Down syndrome occurs.
Children and adults with Down syndrome usually have certain characteristic signs, including:
Some parents have a greater risk of having a baby with Down syndrome. Risk factors include:
|Mother’s age||Children with Down Syndrome|
|20||1 in 1,600|
|25||1 in 1300|
|30||1 in 1000|
|35||1 in 365|
|40||1 in 90|
|45||1 in 30|
|49||1 in 10|
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