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High blood pressure

High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. You can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Even without symptoms, damage to blood vessels and your heart continues and can be detected. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.High blood pressure generally develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it.

Signs and symptoms

Most people with high blood pressure will not experience any symptoms. People often call hypertension the "silent killer" for this reason. However, once blood pressure reaches about 180/120 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), it becomes a hypertensive crisis, which is a medical emergency.

At this stage, symptoms will show, including:
  1. A headache
  2. nausea
  3. vomiting
  4. dizziness
  5. blurred or double vision
  6. nosebleeds
  7. heart palpitations
  8. breathlessness

Complications

The excessive pressure on your artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels, as well as organs in your body. The higher your blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage.

Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to complications including:

  1. Heart attack or stroke. High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack, stroke or other complications.
  2. Aneurysm. Increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening.
  3. Heart failure. 
  4. Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. This can prevent these organs from functioning normally.
  5. Thickened, narrowed or torn blood vessels in the eyes. This can result in vision loss.
  6. Metabolic syndrome.
  7. Trouble with memory or understanding. 
  8. Dementia.

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